The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy , 28 (2003), 45-78.
Abstract: When does a human being begin to exist? We argue that it is possible, through a combination of biological fact and philosophical analysis, to provide a definitive answer to this question. We lay down a set of conditions for being a human being, and we determine when, in the course of normal fetal development, these conditions are first satisfied. Issues dealt with along the way include: modes of substance-formation, twinning, the nature of the intra-uterine environment, and the nature of the relation between fetus and mother.
The Question of Human Origins and Its Ethical Significance
Preprint version of a paper published in
E. Runggaldier and C. Kanzian (eds.), Persons: Persons - An Interdisciplinary Approach,
: öbv&hpt, 2003, 243–59. Vienna
See also papers on anatomical parthood here
G Damschen, A Gómez-Lobo… - Journal of Medicine and …, 2006 - Taylor & Francis
When does a human being begin to exist? Barry Smith and Berit Brogaard have argued that
it is possible, through a combination of biological fact and philosophical analysis, to provide
a definitive answer to this question. In their view, a human individual begins to exist at ...
[BOOK] The morality of embryo use
LM Guenin - 2008 - books.google.com
Is it permissible to use a human embryo in stem cell research, or in general as a means for
benefit of others? Acknowledging each embryo as an object of moral concern, Louis M.
Guenin argues that it is morally permissible to decline intrauterine transfer of an embryo ...
[CITATION] Abortion: three perspectives
M Tooley, C Wolf-Devine, PE Devine - 2009 - Oxford University Press, USA
MT Brown - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2007 - Taylor & Francis
A higher order potential analysis of moral status clarifies the issues that divide Human Being
Theorists who oppose embryo research from Person Theorists who favor embryo research.
Higher order potential personhood is transitive if it is active, identity preserving and ...
A Mauron, B Baertschi - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2004 - Taylor & Francis
As elsewhere, the ethical debate on embryonic stem cell research in Central Europe,
especially Germany and Switzerland, involves controversy over the status of the human
embryo. There is a distinctive Kantian flavor to the standard arguments however, and we ...
LM Morgan - The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 2006 - Wiley Online Library
A friend once told me I was wasting my time writing about cross-cultural perspectives on the
beginnings of life.“Your work is interesting for its curiosity value,” he said,“but fundamentally
worthless. What happens in other cultures is totally irrelevant to what is happening here.” ...
P Kain - Journal of the History of Philosophy, 2009 - muse.jhu.edu
Abstract: The determination of individual moral status is a central factor in the ethical
evaluation of controversial practices such as elective abortion, human embryo-destructive
research, and the care of the severely disabled and those in persistent vegetative states. A ...
[HTML] Ethics of Stem Cell Research
A Siegel - 2008 - illc.uva.nl
Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human
suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. HESCs are characterized by their
capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. ...
AA Howsepian - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2008 - jmp.oxfordjournals.org
Abstract In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning
the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis.(1) Following its first cellular fission, is it
coherent to claim that one and only one of two “blastomeric” twins of a human zygote is ...
D Marquis - Metaphilosophy, 2007 - Wiley Online Library
Abstract: Opponents of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research claim that such
research is incompatible with the moral principle that it is always wrong intentionally to end a
human life. In this essay, I discuss how that principle might be revised so that it is subject ...
D DeGrazia - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 2007 - muse.jhu.edu
Abstract: Those who are morally opposed to abortion generally make several pivotal
assumptions. This paper focuses on the assumption that we have full moral status
throughout our existence. Coupled with the assumption that we come into existence at ...
P Robichaud - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2006 - Taylor & Francis
This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy contains articles that are unified in
their focus on issues related to the beginning and end of human life. Historically, a large
measure of the bioethics literature is comprised of attempts to deal with ethical issues that ...
A Gómez-Lobo - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 2007 - muse.jhu.edu
Abstract: This paper starts from three assumptions: that we are essentially human
organisms, that we start to exist at conception, and that we retain our identity throughout our
lives. The identity claim provides the background to argue that it is irrational for a person to ...
M Brochhausen - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2006 - ifomis.org
Abstract. This paper is part of the ongoing efforts within the framework of the Open
Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) ontology library to optimize the treatment of relations in
biomedical informatics. When ovum and sperm fuse to form a zygote, then the latter is ...
R De Sousa - Croatian journal of philosophy, 2005 - ceeol.com
The question What is an individual? goes back beyond Aristotle's discussion of substance to
the Ionians' preoccupation with the paradox of change—the fact that if anything changes it
must stay the same. Mere reflection on this fact and the common-sense notion of a ...
C Tollefsen - Christian Bioethics, 2006 - Taylor & Francis
In this essay, I defend three Simple Views concerning human beings. First, that the human
embryo is, from the one-cell stage onwards, a single unitary organism. Second, that when an
embryo twins, it ceases to exist and two new embryos come into existence. And third, that ...
A Gómez-Lobo - Online paper accessed May, 2009 - ontology.buffalo.edu
This is a question that has been asked many times in the past and is now asked again with
renewed urgency. The reply I will give is certainly not new, but it will be reached invoking a
piece of relatively recent evidence that I hope will also allow me to provide a fresh insight ...
J Morris - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2012 - jmp.oxfordjournals.org
Abstract Assigning the appropriate moral status to different stages of human development is
an urgent problem in bioethics. Many philosophers have attempted to assess developmental
events using strict ontological principles to determine when a developing entity becomes ...
M Walker - American Philosophical Quarterly, 2008 - JSTOR
Ireimplantation genetic diagnosis"(PGD) refers to procedures used to test embryos in vi tro.
Examination typically involves removal of one or two cells with a needle when the embryo is
at the six-to ten-cell stage of development. Methods of assay, such as polymerase chain re ...
EC Brugger - Theoretical medicine and bioethics, 2009 - Springer
Abstract This essay has two purposes. The first is to argue that our moral duties towards
human embryos should be assessed in light of the Golden Rule by asking the normative
question,“how would I want to be treated if I were an embryo?” Some reject the proposition ...
P Ventura-Juncá, MJ Santos - Biological Research, 2011 - SciELO Chile
ABSTRACT The issue of when the human life begins is a very important subject since it has
a significant impact on the decisions that we have to take in relation to human beings in
development, particularly human embryos. In this article we discuss some of the more ...
S Napier - Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos, 2011 - Springer
As of this writing, if one searches Philosophers Index© under the term “abortion” one will get
back 1, 485 total entries. If one limits the search to the past 10 years (2001–2011), one will
get back 427 entries (almost 30% of the literature produced has been in the last 10 years). ...
FD Lara - Human Affairs, 2012 - Springer
Abstract Medical stem cell research is currently the cause of much moral controversy. Those
who would confer the same moral status to embryos as we do to humans consider that
harvesting such embryonic cells entails sacrificing embryos. In this paper, the author ...
R Koch - The Monist, 2008 - secure.pdcnet.org
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Resources; Journals & Series; Digital Media; Books & Reference Works. MEMBERSHIPS:
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G Rager - kath.ch
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) implies severe risks for the mother and is not fully
reliable in its diagnostic power. The main ethically relevant problem, however, is the fact that
many embryos have to be generated in order to select the «suitable» ones, some of which ...
C Tollefsen - Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos, 2011 - Springer
The geography of the debate concerning practices destructive of the youngest members of
the human species is by now rather well worked out. Of the questions to be answered, there
is first the following: are you, the readers of this essay, and I, the author, and others ...